American Journal of Sports Science

Research Article | | Peer-Reviewed |

Effects of 8 Weeks Conditioning Exercises on Muscular Endurance: A Cross-Sectional Study of Female Cadets of Ghana Immigration Service Academy, Assin Fosu, Ghana

Received: 26 February 2024    Accepted: 11 March 2024    Published: 20 March 2024
Views:       Downloads:

Share This Article

Abstract

Physical conditioning enables athletes to meet all the physical requirements of their sport, perform well, and minimize their risk of injury. This study aims to determine the effects of eight (8) weeks conditioning training on the muscular endurance of Female Cadets of the Ghana Immigration Service Academy. The Army Physical Training Fitness Test (APFT) was used to evaluate muscular endurance levels of the Female Cadets. The quasi-experimental pre-test post-test study design was used to conduct the study. A total of 60 female cadets were randomly stratified into two groups based on APFT age categories (22-26) and (27-31) years. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and paired sample t-test and independent sample t-test was used to test the hypothesis. Higher upper body muscular endurance performance as measured by the APFT was observed in the age group (27-31) years compared to age group (22-26) years. Significant difference was found in muscular endurance in the females age groups (22-26) and (27-31) years (P<0.05). Significant positive effect on muscular endurance after conditioning exercises for female Cadets in both age categories, (22-26) and (27-31) years (P<0.05) was observed. Conditioning exercises had a significant impact on APFT upper body muscular endurance performance in the age categories of (22-26) and (27-31) years.

DOI 10.11648/j.ajss.20241201.12
Published in American Journal of Sports Science (Volume 12, Issue 1, March 2024)
Page(s) 6-11
Creative Commons

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, provided the original work is properly cited.

Copyright

Copyright © The Author(s), 2024. Published by Science Publishing Group

Keywords

Female Cadets, Physical Conditioning, Muscular Endurance, Army Physical Fitness Test, Ghana Immigration Service

References
[1] Erikssen, G. (2001). Physical fitness and changes in mortality: the survival of the fittest. Sports Med, 31(8), 571-576. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200131080-00001
[2] Knapik, J., Darakjy, S., Scott, S. J., Hauret, K. G., Canada, S., Marin, R., Rieger, W., & Jones, B. H. (2005). Evaluation of a standardized physical training program for basic combat training. Journal of strength and conditioning research, 19(2), 246–253. https://doi.org/10.1519/16324.1
[3] Knapik, J., Daniels, W., Murphy, M., Fitzgerald, P., Drews, F., & Vogel, J. (1990). Physiological factors in infantry operations. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol, 60(3), 233-238. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00839165
[4] American College of Sports Medicine (2006) Guidelines for exercise testing and prescription. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp. 19–54, 115–173.
[5] Headquarters Department of the Army (Ed.). Field Manual 7-22: Army Physical Readiness Training. 2012. Web site. http://armypubs.army.mil/doctrine/DR_pubs/dr_a/pdf/fm7_22.pdf. Accessed October 4, 2012.
[6] Fish, L., & Scharre, P. (2018). The soldier’s heavy load. Washington, D.C.: The Center for a New American Security, pp. 1–20. Retrieved from https://scholar.google.com/scholar_lookup?hl=en&publication_year=2018&pages=1-20&author=L+Fish&author=P+Scharre&title=The+soldier%27s+heavy+load
[7] Nindl, B. C., Castellani, J. W., Warr, B. J., Sharp, M. A., Henning, P. C., Spiering, B. A., & Scofield, D. E. (2013). Physiological Employment Standards III: physiological challenges and consequences encountered during international military deployments. European journal of applied physiology, 113(11), 2655–2672. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-013-2591-1
[8] Sharp M. A. (1994). Physical fitness and occupational performance of women in the u.s. Army. Work (Reading, Mass.), 4(2), 80–92. https://doi.org/10.3233/WOR-1994-4203
[9] Nindl BC, et al. (2017). Functional physical training improves women’s military occupational performance. J Sci Med Sport, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2017.07.012
[10] Regulation A 611-201 (1985). Enlisted Career Management Fields and Military Occupational Specialties, HO Department of the Army, p. 20.
[11] Allison, K. F., Keenan, K. A., Sell, T. C., Abt, J. P., Nagai, T., Deluzio, J., McGrail, M., & Lephart, S. M. (2015). Musculoskeletal, biomechanical, and physiological gender differences in the US military. U. S. Army Medical Department journal, 22–32.
[12] Sharp, M. A. (1993). Physical fitness, physical training and occupational performance of men and women in the US Army: A review of literature. Natick, Mass.: US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine.
[13] American College of Sport Medicine (2014). ACSM’s Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription (9th Ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins
[14] Pescatello, L. S., & American College of Sports Medicine. (2014). ACSM's guidelines for exercise testing and prescription. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Health.
[15] Taylor- McIntosh, G., Wilson, L., Affieck, M., & Hall, H. (1998). Trunk and lower extremity muscle endurance: normative data for adults. Journal of Rehabilitation Outcomes Measurement, 2(4), 1–13. Retrieved from http://www.tbihealth.co.nz/content/downloads/our-results/clincalresearch/1998_trnk_and_lwr_extremtiy_mscl_endurance.pdf
[16] Sporiš, G., Harasin, D., Baić, M., Krističević, T., Krakan, I., Milanović, Z., Cular, D., & Bagarić-Krakan, L. (2014). Effects of two different 5 weeks training programs on the physical fitness of military recruits. Collegium antropologicum, 38 Suppl 2, 157–164.
[17] Campos, L. C. B., Campos, F. A. D., Bezerra, T. A. R., & Pellegrinotti, Í. L. (2017). Effects of 12 Weeks of Physical Training on Body Composition and Physical Fitness in Military Recruits. International journal of exercise science, 10(4), 560–567.
[18] Santtila, M., Häkkinen, K., Karavirta, L., & Kyröläinen, H. (2016). Changes in Cardiovascular Performance During an 8-Week Military Basic Training Period Combined with Added Endurance or Strength Training. Military medicine, 181(9), 1165. https://doi.org/10.7205/MILMED-D-16-00266
[19] Stratton, S. (2019). Quasi-Experimental Design (Pre-Test and Post-Test Studies) in Prehospital and Disaster Research. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, 34(6), 573-574. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1049023X19005053
[20] Santtila, M., Kyröläinen, H., & Häkkinen, K. (2009). Changes in maximal and explosive strength, electromyography, and muscle thickness of lower and upper extremities induced by combined strength and endurance training in soldiers. Journal of strength and conditioning research, 23(4), 1300–1308. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181a884bc
[21] Wood, P. S., Grant, C. C., du Toit, P. J., & Fletcher, L. (2017). Effect of Mixed Basic Military Training on the Physical Fitness of Male and Female Soldiers. Military medicine, 182(7), e1771–e1779. https://doi.org/10.7205/MILMED-D-16-00218
[22] Anderson, M., Dada, E. O., Anderson, M. K., Grier, T., Alemany, J. A., & Jones, B. H. (2017). Sex and Age Differences in Physical Performance : A Comparison of Army Basic Training and Operational Populations Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport Sex and age differences in physical performance : A comparison of Army basic training and operational populations. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 20(October), S68–S73. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2017.10.002
[23] Knapik JJ, Banderet LE, Vogel JA, Bahrke MS, O’Connor JS. (1996). Influence of age and physical training on measures of cardiorespiratory and muscle endurance. Eur J Appl Physiol.; 72(5-6): 490-495. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00242280
[24] Sloan, R. A., Sawada, S, S., Martin, C. K., Church, T., Blair, S., N. (2009). Associations between cardiorespiratory fitness and health-related quality of life. Health Qual Life Outcomes.; 7: 47-51. https://doi.org/10.1186/1477-7525-7-47
Cite This Article
  • APA Style

    Opoku-Antwi, E., Kwakye, J. A., Akator, G. C., Anim, S. (2024). Effects of 8 Weeks Conditioning Exercises on Muscular Endurance: A Cross-Sectional Study of Female Cadets of Ghana Immigration Service Academy, Assin Fosu, Ghana. American Journal of Sports Science, 12(1), 6-11. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajss.20241201.12

    Copy | Download

    ACS Style

    Opoku-Antwi, E.; Kwakye, J. A.; Akator, G. C.; Anim, S. Effects of 8 Weeks Conditioning Exercises on Muscular Endurance: A Cross-Sectional Study of Female Cadets of Ghana Immigration Service Academy, Assin Fosu, Ghana. Am. J. Sports Sci. 2024, 12(1), 6-11. doi: 10.11648/j.ajss.20241201.12

    Copy | Download

    AMA Style

    Opoku-Antwi E, Kwakye JA, Akator GC, Anim S. Effects of 8 Weeks Conditioning Exercises on Muscular Endurance: A Cross-Sectional Study of Female Cadets of Ghana Immigration Service Academy, Assin Fosu, Ghana. Am J Sports Sci. 2024;12(1):6-11. doi: 10.11648/j.ajss.20241201.12

    Copy | Download

  • @article{10.11648/j.ajss.20241201.12,
      author = {Eric Opoku-Antwi and Josephine Adjubi Kwakye and Gilbert Confidence Akator and Stephen Anim},
      title = {Effects of 8 Weeks Conditioning Exercises on Muscular Endurance: A Cross-Sectional Study of Female Cadets of Ghana Immigration Service Academy, Assin Fosu, Ghana},
      journal = {American Journal of Sports Science},
      volume = {12},
      number = {1},
      pages = {6-11},
      doi = {10.11648/j.ajss.20241201.12},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajss.20241201.12},
      eprint = {https://article.sciencepublishinggroup.com/pdf/10.11648.j.ajss.20241201.12},
      abstract = {Physical conditioning enables athletes to meet all the physical requirements of their sport, perform well, and minimize their risk of injury. This study aims to determine the effects of eight (8) weeks conditioning training on the muscular endurance of Female Cadets of the Ghana Immigration Service Academy. The Army Physical Training Fitness Test (APFT) was used to evaluate muscular endurance levels of the Female Cadets. The quasi-experimental pre-test post-test study design was used to conduct the study. A total of 60 female cadets were randomly stratified into two groups based on APFT age categories (22-26) and (27-31) years. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and paired sample t-test and independent sample t-test was used to test the hypothesis. Higher upper body muscular endurance performance as measured by the APFT was observed in the age group (27-31) years compared to age group (22-26) years. Significant difference was found in muscular endurance in the females age groups (22-26) and (27-31) years (P<0.05). Significant positive effect on muscular endurance after conditioning exercises for female Cadets in both age categories, (22-26) and (27-31) years (P<0.05) was observed. Conditioning exercises had a significant impact on APFT upper body muscular endurance performance in the age categories of (22-26) and (27-31) years.
    },
     year = {2024}
    }
    

    Copy | Download

  • TY  - JOUR
    T1  - Effects of 8 Weeks Conditioning Exercises on Muscular Endurance: A Cross-Sectional Study of Female Cadets of Ghana Immigration Service Academy, Assin Fosu, Ghana
    AU  - Eric Opoku-Antwi
    AU  - Josephine Adjubi Kwakye
    AU  - Gilbert Confidence Akator
    AU  - Stephen Anim
    Y1  - 2024/03/20
    PY  - 2024
    N1  - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajss.20241201.12
    DO  - 10.11648/j.ajss.20241201.12
    T2  - American Journal of Sports Science
    JF  - American Journal of Sports Science
    JO  - American Journal of Sports Science
    SP  - 6
    EP  - 11
    PB  - Science Publishing Group
    SN  - 2330-8540
    UR  - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajss.20241201.12
    AB  - Physical conditioning enables athletes to meet all the physical requirements of their sport, perform well, and minimize their risk of injury. This study aims to determine the effects of eight (8) weeks conditioning training on the muscular endurance of Female Cadets of the Ghana Immigration Service Academy. The Army Physical Training Fitness Test (APFT) was used to evaluate muscular endurance levels of the Female Cadets. The quasi-experimental pre-test post-test study design was used to conduct the study. A total of 60 female cadets were randomly stratified into two groups based on APFT age categories (22-26) and (27-31) years. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and paired sample t-test and independent sample t-test was used to test the hypothesis. Higher upper body muscular endurance performance as measured by the APFT was observed in the age group (27-31) years compared to age group (22-26) years. Significant difference was found in muscular endurance in the females age groups (22-26) and (27-31) years (P<0.05). Significant positive effect on muscular endurance after conditioning exercises for female Cadets in both age categories, (22-26) and (27-31) years (P<0.05) was observed. Conditioning exercises had a significant impact on APFT upper body muscular endurance performance in the age categories of (22-26) and (27-31) years.
    
    VL  - 12
    IS  - 1
    ER  - 

    Copy | Download

Author Information
  • Department of Sport and Exercise Science, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana

  • Department of Sport and Exercise Science, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana

  • Department of Sport and Exercise Science, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana

  • Department of Sport and Exercise Science, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana

  • Sections