Volume 6, Issue 1, January 2018, Page: 12-19
Effects of a Physical Activity Intervention Program on Nutritional Status and Health-Related Physical Fitness of Thai Older Adults in Bangkok Metropolitan Area, Thailand
Boonlerst Outayanik, Department of Physical Education, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand
Andre Seabra, Faculty of Sport, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal
Edwin Rosenberg, Department of Sociology and Social Work, Appalachian State University, North Carolina, USA
Received: Nov. 1, 2017;       Accepted: Dec. 7, 2017;       Published: Jan. 31, 2018
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajss.20180601.13      View  424      Downloads  27
Aging is frequently associated with a decrease in physical activity levels and consequently a decline in physical fitness, which may contribute to the development of osteoporosis, bone fractures, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome and cognitive impairment. This study sought to examine the effects of an 8-week physical activity intervention program on nutritional status and health-related physical fitness among Thai older adults. Thirty five healthy elder volunteers in Bangkok city and metropolitan area (aged 61-78 years) completed an 8-week physical activity intervention that comprises a nine matrices exercise (NME) program (5 sessions per week of 30-60 minutes). Measurements were taken at baseline and after 8 weeks, and included height, weight, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure and health-related physical fitness tests (6-minute walk, chair sit-and-reach, arm curl, back scratch, chair stand and 8-ft up and go). Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics and Pair sample t-test. The results found over an 8-week intervention study, participants significantly improved their weight (pre: 57.4±9.2; post: 56.7±9.0, P<0.003), BMI (pre: 22.40±0.5; post: 21.98±0.5, P<0.001,), cardiorespiratory fitness (pre: 447.9±38.1; post: 501.0±47.0, p=0.000), arm curl (pre: 15.8±2.9; post: 22.3± 3.8, p=0.000) and leg squat (pre: 13.4±1.7; post: 19.5±3.6, p=0.000) muscular strength, shoulder (pre: 0.4±7.6; post: 1.9±7.9, p=0.024) and lower back (pre: -0.8±10.5; post: 4.2±9.0, p=0.000) flexibility and agility and balance (pre: 8.2±0.5; post: 7.9±0.6, p= 0.000). Blood pressure did not change significantly during the study period (p > 0.05). This study demonstrated an 8-week NME program represents an effective strategy for improving nutritional status and health-related physical fitness of Thai older adults in Bangkok city and metropolitan area.
Physical Fitness, Nine Matrix Exercise, Health, Thai Aging
To cite this article
Boonlerst Outayanik, Andre Seabra, Edwin Rosenberg, Effects of a Physical Activity Intervention Program on Nutritional Status and Health-Related Physical Fitness of Thai Older Adults in Bangkok Metropolitan Area, Thailand, American Journal of Sports Science. Vol. 6, No. 1, 2018, pp. 12-19. doi: 10.11648/j.ajss.20180601.13
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Bouchard C, Blair SN, Haskell WL. Why study physical activity and health. Physical activity and health. 2007;1:3–20.
Wang CY, Haskell WL, Farrell SW, Lamonte MJ, Blair SN, Curtin LR, et al. Cardiorespiratory fitness levels among US adults 20-49 years of age: findings from the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Am J Epidemiol. 2010;171(4):426–35. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwp412. [PubMed: 20080809].
Meijer EP, Westerterp KR, Verstappen FT. Effect of exercise training on total daily physical activity in elderly humans. Eur J Appl Physiol Oc- cup Physiol. 1999;80(1):16–21. doi: 10.1007/s004210050552. [PubMed: 10367718].
Thygerson A. L., Larson K. L. Fit to be Well. London: Jones and Bartlett Publishers; 2006.
US Department of Health and Human Service. Physical activity guideline for American 2009. Available from: http://www.health. gov/paguideline.
Heyward VH. Advanced Fitness Assessment and Exercise Prescription. Human Kinetics; 2010.
Hoeger WWK, Hoeger SA. Principle and labs for physical fitness. Belmont: Wadsworth; 2012.
American College of Sports M, Chodzko-Zajko WJ, Proctor DN, Fiatarone Singh MA, Minson CT, Nigg CR, et al. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exercise and physical activity for older adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009;41(7):1510–30. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181a0c95c. [PubMed: 19516148].
Rowe JW, Kahn RL. Successful aging. NY: Pantheon/Random House; 1998.
Shigematsu R, Okura T. A novel exercise for improving lower- extremity functional fitness in the elderly. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2006;18(3):242–8. [PubMed: 16804371].
Shigematsu R, Okura T, Nakagaichi M, Tanaka K, Sakai T, Kitazumi S, et al. Square-stepping exercise and fall risk factors in older adults: a single-blind, randomized controlled trial. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2008;63(1):76–82. [PubMed: 18245764].
Shigematsu R, Okura T, Sakai T, Rantanen T. Square-stepping exercise versus strength and balance training for fall risk factors. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2008;20(1):19–24. [PubMed: 18283224].
Krabuanrat C. Nine Square and Brain Development. BKK: Sinthana Copy Center; 2009.
Harnirattisai T, Thongtawee B, Raetong P. The Effects of a Physical Activity Program for Fall Prevention among Thai Older Adults. Pac Rim Int J Nurs Res. 2015;19(1):4–18.
Ronnarithivichai C, Thaweeboon T, Petchansri S, Sujijantararat R, Boonchau N, Kridiborwon C. The evaluation of physical fitness before and after 9-square-tableaerobic exercise and rubber ring stretching of elders in the health promotion program, Faculty of Nursing, Mahidol University. J Nur Sci. 2009;17(3):68–77.
Hemwong P. The effect of the matrix of nine square training and flexibility on agility. Acad J Inst Phys Ed. 2012;4(1):131–42.
Rikli RE, Jones CJ. Senior Fitness Test Manual. IL. Human Kinetics; 2001.
Cruz-Jentoft AJ, Landi F, Topinkova E, Michel JP. Understanding sarcopenia as a geriatric syndrome. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2010;13(1):1–7. doi: 10.1097/MCO.0b013e328333c1c1. [PubMed: 19915458].
Mazzeo RS, Tanaka H. Exercise prescription for the elderly: cur- rent recommendations. Sports Med. 2001;31(11):809–18. [PubMed: 11583105].
Iannuzzi-Sucich M, Prestwood KM, Kenny AM. Prevalence of sarcopenia and predictors of skeletal muscle mass in healthy, older men and women. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2002;57(12):M772–7. [PubMed: 12456735].
Adams KJ, Swank AM, Berning JM, Sevene-Adams PG, Barnard KL, Shimp-Bowerman J. Progressive strength training in sedentary, older African American women. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001;33(9):1567–76. [PubMed: 11528347].
Grimby G, Aniansson A, Hedberg M, Henning GB, Grangard U, Kvist H. Training can improve muscle strength and endurance in 78- to 84-yr- old men. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1992;73(6):2517–23. [PubMed: 1490965].
Muehlbauer T, Gollhofer A, Granacher U. Associations Between Measures of Balance and Lower-Extremity Muscle Strength/Power in Healthy Individuals Across the Lifespan: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Sports Med. 2015;45(12):1671–92. doi: 10.1007/s40279- 015-0390-z. [PubMed: 26412212].
Ryushi T, Kumagai K, Hayase H, Abe T, Shibuya K, Ono A. Effect of resistive knee extension training on postural control measures in middle aged and elderly persons. J Physiol Anthropol Appl Human Sci. 2000;19(3):143–9. [PubMed: 10924038].
Junprasert S, Toonsiri C, Chala-em T, Choojun N, Kirdnoil P, Songprasert A, et al. Impact of nine-square Thai dancing on elderly people’s health. Thai J Nurs Council. 2013;28(4):68–80.
Nelson ME, Rejeski WJ, Blair SN, Duncan PW, Judge JO, King AC, et al. Physical activity and public health in older adults: recommendation from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007;39(8):1435–45. doi: 10.1249/mss.0b013e3180616aa2. [PubMed: 17762378].
American College of Sports Medicine. ACSM’s Guidelines for exercise testing and prescription. NY: Lippincott, William & Wilkins; 2010.
Hong Y, Li JX, Robinson PD. Balance control, flexibility, and cardiorespiratory fitness among older Tai Chi practitioners. Br J Sports Med. 
2000;34(1):29–34. [PubMed: 10690447].
Binder EF, Birge SJ, Spina R, Ehsani AA, Brown M, Sinacore DR, et al. 
Peak aerobic power is an important component of physical performance in older women. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 1999;54(7):M353–6. [PubMed: 10462167].
Singh MA. Exercise and aging. Clin Geriatr Med. 2004;20(2):201–21. doi: 10.1016/j.cger.2004.03.003. [PubMed: 15182878].
Singh NA, Clements KM, Fiatarone MA. A randomized controlled trial of progressive resistance training in depressed elders. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 1997;52(1):M27–35. [PubMed: 9008666].
Williams PE, Goldspink G. Longitudinal growth of striated muscle fibers. J Cell Sci. 1971;9(3):751–67. [PubMed: 5148015].
Kottke FJ, Pauley DL, Ptak RA. The rationale for prolonged stretching for correction of shortening of connective tissue. Arch Phys Med Reha- bil. 1966;47(6):345–52. [PubMed: 5940624].
Barnett JG, Holly RG, Ashmore CR. Stretch-induced growth in chicken wing muscles: biochemical and morphological characterization. Am J Physiol. 1980;239(1):C39–46. [PubMed: 6156603].
Herriott MT, Colberg SR, Parson HK, Nunnold T, Vinik AI. Effects of 8 weeks of flexibility and resistance training in older adults with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2004;27(12):2988–9. [PubMed: 15562222].
Girouard CK, Hurley BF. Does strength training inhibit gains in range of motion from flexibility training in older adults?. Med Sci Sports Ex- erc. 1995;27(10):1444–9. [PubMed: 8531617].
Sousa N, Mendes R, Abrantes C, Sampaio J, Oliveira J. Effective- ness of combined exercise training to improve functional fitness in older adults: A randomized controlled trial. Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2014;14(4):892–8. doi: 10.1111/ggi.12188. [PubMed: 24779956].
Wanderley FA, Silva G, Marques E, Oliveira J, Mota J, Carvalho J. Associations between objectively assessed physical activity levels and fitness and self-reported health-related quality of life in community-dwelling older adults. Qual Life Res. 2011;20(9):1371–8. doi: 10.1007/s11136-011-9875-x. [PubMed: 21380765].
Browse journals by subject