Volume 6, Issue 1, January 2018, Page: 8-11
Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Injuries in Males and Females Practicing Swimming from Higher School of Zimbabwe
Dube Adiele, Department of Emergency Medical Care, Emergency Medical Ambulances Rescue Services, Kwekwe, Zimbabwe
Gundani Patrick Morgan, Department of Sports Science and Coaching, Faculty of Applied Sciences, National University of Science and Technology, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe
Received: Jan. 16, 2017;       Accepted: Apr. 1, 2017;       Published: Jan. 17, 2018
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajss.20180601.12      View  407      Downloads  39
An epidemiological survey was conducted to collect data relating to the prevalence and frequency of musculoskeletal injuries in Zimbabwean high school male and female swimmers. A questionnaire was administered on site thus ensuring that the response rate was 100 percent. Analysis of results revealed that of the 45 respondents there were 22 male (48.9%) and 23 female subjects (51.1%). A total of 27 swimmers (60% hence 16 male; 11 females); 59.26% and 40.74% respectively reported that they had musculoskeletal problems and pain mainly shoulder problems (males = 62% and females = 57.1%), followed by knee injuries (males = 20.6% and females = 16.7%), and low back pain region (males = 17.1% and females = 26.2%). There was a statistical significance in injury difference between male and female high school swimmers (t= 2.46, p= 0.031). Considering the difference of injuries with respect to strokes significant injuries difference were found in Back Strokes (p= 0.034) and Butterfly (p= 0.018). However, no significant difference were found in Breast Stroke (p= 0.567) and Crawl (p= 0.852). Musculoskeletal injuries are common in high school male and female swimmers. Correct stroke technique and stroke alterations may help to prevent injuries and care must be taken for their prevention and early safe return to play.
Musculoskeletal Injuries, Sprain, Strain, Swimmers
To cite this article
Dube Adiele, Gundani Patrick Morgan, Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Injuries in Males and Females Practicing Swimming from Higher School of Zimbabwe, American Journal of Sports Science. Vol. 6, No. 1, 2018, pp. 8-11. doi: 10.11648/j.ajss.20180601.12
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Wanivenhaus F., Fox A. J. S, Chaudhury S, and Rodeo S. A. Epidemiology of Injuries and Prevention Strategies in Competitive Swimmers. Sports Health. May 2012; 4 (3): 246–251.
Johnson, Jettery, Frankinh, Sim and Scott S. G. Musculoskeletal injuries in competitive swimmers, Subject review mayo clin proc. 1987; 62: 289-304.
Mc. Mster WC. Shoulder in competitive swimmers. Clinics in Sports medicine, 1999 Vol. 18 (2) 349-357.
Tuppekar R. P. & Singh S. K. Journal of Sports Science and Technology 2010 Vol. 10 (2S): 154-156.
Venancio B. O., Tacani, P. M. and Deliberato P. ‘C. P. Pain prevalence in swimming athletes of São Caetano do Sul. Rev Bras Med Esporte [online]. 2012 Vol. 18 (6); 394-399.
Rechardson, A. B, and Miller J. W. Swimming and the older athlete Clinics in Sports medicine, 1991; 10: 2.
McFarland EG, Wasik M. Injuries in female collegiate swimmers due to swimming and cross training. Clin J Sport Med 1996; 6: 178-182.
[8]. McMaster WC, Troup J. A survey of interfering shoulder pain in United States competitive swimmers. Am J Sports Med 1993; 21: 67-70.
NCAA (2007) Sports Sponsorship and Participation Rates Report 1981/82 & 2005/06. Indianapolis, IN: National Collegiate Athletic Association.
Sambanis M, Athanailidis I, Sambanis A, Kiritsi O, Tsitas K. A Study of Musculoskeletal Injuries in Greek Male and Female Swimmers. J Nov Physiother 2013; 3: 140. doi: 10.4172/2165-7025.1000140.
Sreekaarini I, Eapen C, Zulfeequer CP. Prevalence of Sports Injuries in Adolescent Athletes. J Athl Enhancement 2014; 3: 5.
Wolf BR, Ebinger AE, Lawler MP, Britton CL (2009) Injury patterns in Division I collegiate swimming. Am J Sports Med 37: 2037-2042.
Bak K, Fauno P. Clinical findings in competitive swimmers with shoulder pain. Am J Sports Med. 1997; 25 (2): 254-260.
Johnson JN (2003) Competitive swimming illness and injury: common conditions limiting participation. Curr Sports Med Rep 2: 267-271.
Rodeo SA (1999) Knee pain in competitive swimming. Clin Sports Med 18: 379-387, viii.
Rodeo SA. Swimming. In: Krishnan SG, Hawkins RJ, Warren RF, editors., eds. The Shoulder and the Overhead Athlete. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Williams & WIlkins; 2004: 350.
Rupp S, Berninger K, Hopf T. Shoulder problems in high level swimmers: impingement, anterior instability, muscular imbalance? Int J Sports Med. 1995; 16 (8): 557-562.
Zemek MJ, Magee DJ. Comparison of glenohumeral joint laxity in elite and recreational swimmers. Clin J Sport Med. 1996; 6 (1): 40-47.
Kennedy JC, Hawkins R, Krissoff WB. Orthopaedic manifestations of swimming. Am J Sports Med. 1978; 6 (6): 309-322.
Keskinen K, Eriksson E, Komi P. Breaststroke swimmer’s knee: a biomechanical and arthroscopic study. Am J Sports Med. 1980; 8 (4): 228-231.
Vizsolyi P, Taunton J, Robertson G. Breaststroker’s knee: an analysis of epidemiological and biomechanical factors. Am J Sports Med. 1987; 15 (1): 63-71.
Brukner P, Khan K. (2006) Clinical Sports Medicine. 3rd Ed. Australia, McGraw-Hill.
Hutson M, Speed S. (2011) Sports Injuries. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Nyska M, Constantini N, Cale-Benzoor M, Back Z, Kahn G, Mann G. Spondylolysis as a cause of low back pain in swimmers. Int J Sports Med. 2000; 21 (5): 375-379.
Porter RW, Adams MA, Hutton WC. Physical activity and the strength of the lumbar spine. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1989; 14 (2): 201-203.
Matheus Oliveira de Almeida, PT, Luiz Carlos Hespanhol, Junior PT, Alexandre Dias Lopes, PT, Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among Swimmers in an elite national tournament The International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy 2015; 10, (7): 1029
Butler D, Funk L, Mackenzie TA, Herrington LC. Sorting swimmers shoulders: An observational study on swimmers that presented to a shoulder surgeon. Int J Shoulder Surg 2015; 9: 90-3.
Kerr ZY, Baugh CM, Hibberd EE, Snook EM, Hayden R, Dompier TP. Epidemiology of National Collegiate Athletic Association men’s and women’s swimming and diving injuries from 2009/2010 to 2013/2014. Br J Sport Med. 2015; 49 (7): 465-471.
Browse journals by subject